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Framework of most effective practices in protecting human assets from predators

We found out that the most effective interventions are electric fences, guarding animals, calving control and physical deterrents; the most effectively protected asset is livestock; and the most effective interventions are used to protect assets from cheetahs, Eurasian lynx, wolves and lions.

Effectiveness was measured as the relative risk (RR), which was transformed to the percentage of damage reduction (DR) for easy interpretation. The formula is simple: DR = (1-RR)*100%. RR is the probability of damage when an intervention is applied divided by the probability of damage without an intervention. The formula of the relative risk is also simple: RR = (nt/Nt)/(nc/Nc), where nt is the number of losses (livestock, beehives, etc.) with the intervention, Nt is the total number of the resource with the intervention (livestock, beehives etc.), nc is the number of losses without the intervention and Nc is the total number of resource without the intervention. The letter “t” stands for treatment (with intervention) and “c” for control (without intervention).

Interventions are effective when RR is less than 1, ineffective at RR = 1 and counter-productive (interventions produce more damage) when RR is higher than 1. Interventions are most effective when RR = 0, i.e. no losses are inflicted when the intervention is applied (nt = 0).

25 June 2020

Habituation of carnivores to interventions

We analyzed published data on the duration of the effectiveness of deterrents (chemical, acoustical, physical and mixed), electric fences, guarding animals, calving control, supplemental feeding, fences and herding against mammalian predators. We found that electric fences and calving control stay most effective for the longest time (3 months to 3 years), whereas the impact of deterrents and guarding animals lasts only up to 5 months or so.

Effectiveness was measured as the relative risk (RR), which was transformed to the percentage of damage reduction (DR) for easy interpretation. The formula is simple: DR = (1-RR)*100%. RR is the probability of damage when an intervention is applied divided by the probability of damage without an intervention. The formula of the relative risk is also simple: RR = (nt/Nt)/(nc/Nc), where nt is the number of losses (livestock, beehives, etc.) with the intervention, Nt is the total number of the resource with the intervention (livestock, beehives etc.), nc is the number of losses without the intervention and Nc is the total number of resource without the intervention. The letter “t” stands for treatment (with intervention) and “c” for control (without intervention).

Interventions are effective when RR is less than 1, ineffective at RR = 1 and counter-productive (interventions produce more damage) when RR is higher than 1. Interventions are most effective when RR = 0, i.e. no losses are inflicted when the intervention is applied (nt = 0).

25 June 2020

Effectiveness of livestock protection interventions against wolves

We used the literature analysis to quantify the effectiveness of livestock protection interventions, compare it across interventions, and find the best interventions for wider applications. The most effective were fencing (electric fences, electrified fladry, night shelters), deterrents, calving control and herding.

Effectiveness was measured as the relative risk (RR), which was transformed to the percentage of damage reduction (DR) for easy interpretation. The formula is simple: DR = (1-RR)*100%. RR is the probability of damage when an intervention is applied divided by the probability of damage without an intervention. The formula of the relative risk is also simple: RR = (nt/Nt)/(nc/Nc), where nt is the number of losses (livestock, beehives, etc.) with the intervention, Nt is the total number of the resource with the intervention (livestock, beehives etc.), nc is the number of losses without the intervention and Nc is the total number of resource without the intervention. The letter “t” stands for treatment (with intervention) and “c” for control (without intervention).

Interventions are effective when RR is less than 1, ineffective at RR = 1 and counter-productive (interventions produce more damage) when RR is higher than 1. Interventions are most effective when RR = 0, i.e. no losses are inflicted when the intervention is applied (nt = 0).

25 June 2020

Wildlife Friendly™ Certification and Species-specific Certifications for Products and Tourism

Wildlife Friendly™ certification is a global program providing best practice guidelines for farming, ranching, and other enterprises who seek to generate sustainable livelihoods while protecting key species of biodiversity. Our certification programs, also including species-focused initiatives such as Elephant Friendly™ Tea, Jaguar Friendly™ Coffee, and Wildlife Friendly™ IBIS Rice™, are trusted labels that guide consumers towards products that genuinely contribute to species and habitat conservation. Examples of Certified Wildlife Friendly™ and Certified Predator Friendly™ enterprises include producers of dairy, meat, poultry, honey, and crops that use non-lethal management practices and allow for the passage of wildlife and protection of habitat across productive lands. WFEN also certifies tourism enterprises under its core Certified Wildlife Friendly™ Tourism program, such as community-based tour operators and lodges, and others under its Certified Sea Turtle Friendly™ Tourism program, such as resorts that are protecting key sea turtle nesting and foraging habitat while minimizing other tourism related impacts on these species. Wildlife Friendly™ certification provides a science-driven framework for producers seeking to implement practices that support ecosystem integrity, while also requiring that local communities are actively involved and see real benefits from truly Wildlife Friendly™ practices. Consumers are willing to pay a small premium for these products, absorbing the cost often associated with the implementation of best practices for biodiversity. The stories behind certified products and producers build consumer brand loyalty and open access to new markets, while bringing benefits to local communities. Incentivizing best practices across the landscape works to ensure positive conservation outcomes and increased tolerance for wildlife. Across the globe, Wildlife Friendly™ certification and the Wildlife Friendly Enterprise Network are leading the way in promoting agriculture for biodiversity along supply chains and in promoting shared values, understanding, and respect between producers and consumers.

30 January 2020

Rancher teaching ranchers about non-lethal methods

I speak at numerous events regarding ranching with predators. I share my experiences and some of the tools I use on my ranch to help reduce the chance of conflict. I am practical and understand many of the issues and fears ranchers face, including a fear that if they do not kill the predators, issues will escalate.

12 September 2019

CDPNews

The Carnivore Damage Prevention News, a publication initiated in 2000, aims to facilitate the collaboration between specialists and information exchange among carnivore damage prevention projects, and to become an important instrument and forum for many scientists, conservationists, wildlife managers, and policy makers dealing with the issue of damage prevention and large carnivore management and conservation.

18 July 2019

Framework Effective practices

Framework to assess the effectiveness of measures and practices to prevent and limit depredation of large carnivores on livestock.

18 July 2019
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