The solution applied is the construction of a small ripening tank in the village, where people can safely place their cassava bags without suffer from elephant consumption and improve community daily life by decreasing the effort and time to reach the river sometimes far away.29 September 2020
Elephants break water tanks, and pipes, and sometimes houses to access water. The main aim is to protect the water storage facilities in rural villages , as the loss of water in a semi-arid desert puts many human lives at risk.
The government provides each village with a borehole, a pump and trough for their livestock. Additionally, the government provides an elephant drinking dam, which is filled from the same borehole and ideally built a few hundred meters outside the village.
This is important, so the elephants can still drink water when they are around and don’t get frustrated by the now inaccessible water storage facilities.
In some cases this dam is very close to the village and elephants pass by closely. This can be dangerous if people walk at night and without a torch. We started the PEACE Education Project to equip people with the knowledge and skills they need to navigate safely around elephants. However, we help to fund alternative elephant dams further away, if necessary.25 June 2020
When breeders have to deal with depredation of Jaguar or Puma upon their livestock, they have the opportunity to become a “pilot farm” and thus freely set up a non-lethal measure. Both the project leader and the breeder choose together which measure seem to be relevant and adapted to the farm. A technical sheet is given to the breeder to tell him/her all the information to effectively set up and maintain the measure.
For now, 5 deterrent measures are available: sound deterrent system, light deterrent system (Foxlight), electric fence “anti-felid”, donkey, livestock guarding dog “Kangal”.
It offers a free alternative for breeders who were until today, for many of them often using retaliatory killing although it was not effective to reduce predation in the long-term. Workshops are organized to introduce these measures and share the experiences among the local stakeholders involved in this issue.3 June 2020
The bee fence is a simple barrier along which are arranged at regular intervals (10 m), hives suspended on a cable. Its operation is based on the observation that elephants would not approach within four meters of a hive (King et al., 2009). Despite the thickness of their skin, they are prone to bites on the proboscis or near the eyes.
Many studies have proven the effectiveness of this deterrent method. Indeed, for example, King et al. (2011) argue that hive fences can be a useful tool to deter elephants from entering agricultural land. Analysis of 32 intrusions has shown that elephants have only once crossed the hive fences to access the indoor crops and that the thorn acacia barriers offer no defense against such invasions.
The positive results of this study strongly support the installation of hive fences in the current elephant deterrent toolbox to be tested on a larger scale. Not only can these fences deter pachyderms, but bees provide farmers with honey and other products for sale, which helps diversify incomes.
When combined with other deterrents, the combination of initiatives could create an effective barrier against elephants.12 May 2020
The establishment of buffer cultivation based on chilli or chili fencing made with sisal ropes soaked in motor oil mixed with ground chilli (Capsicum spp.) can scare elephants. The active ingredient in chilli, capsaicin, has the power to irritate the epithelium of mammalian cells by causing a burning sensation. It has been demonstrated by Chang’a et al. (2016) that peppers fences effectively discourage raiding of crops by elephants on the scale of individual farms. During the nine-year study, farmers around Mikumi National Park in Tanzania built these fences around maturing crops, and no incidents of fencing broken by elephants were reported.12 May 2020
Natural physical barriers made up of cacti and sisal have been tested in Mozambique to keep elephants away from agricultural plots, but few scientific publications exist on their effectiveness.12 May 2020
As part of a project to understand “Behavior of wolves facing fences in agriculture”, a study was conducted with wolves held in a wildlife park. The results of this project were staged in a film entitled “Anti-wolf fence for small livestock”. This film deals with the theme of the use of fence for the protection of herds.2 October 2019
Support program for pastoralism areas of action of FERUS, a conservation association for large predators in France.2 October 2019
To facilitate the long-term sustainability of this measure, Greek eNGOs initiated an extensive consultation and negotiation processes with national competent authorities, mainly the Ministry of Rural Development and Food so that financial support for the measure would be included in the Greek Rural Development Programme (RDP). Within their Rural Development Programmes, Member States or regions in European Union make available public funds additional to the system of direct payments to farmers. At least 30% of funding for each RDP must be dedicated to measures relevant for the environment and climate change.
The inclusion of damage prevention measures in the Greek RDP was the outcome of these initiatives. The stakeholders addressed through these prevention measures were beekeepers, farmers, and livestock breeders.
For the first time, a measure for electric fences for apiaries and sheepfolds was included in the National RDP of Greece in the programming period 2000-2006, which foresaw financial support for the purchase and installation of electric fences by local producers. A similar preventive measure was included in the next RDP programming period between 2007 and 2013.
Both the Marsican brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) and the Italian honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica) are threatened by the alteration of ecosystems caused by humans. If the bear is critically endangered and on the verge of extinction, then the bees are not safe either. The overall goal of this project is to enhance the biodiversity of the ecosystems and increase food sources for the Marsican brown bear through pollinator insects such as Italian honey bees which would replace non-endemic swarms.
Another important goal of the project is to reduce human-bear conflicts leading to the potential destruction of the small Marsican bear population in Central Italy through poaching (culling is not a legal option). Through promoting cooperation with the beekeepers, this project aims to make beekeepers more aware of the necessity of protecting their farms and see the bear as added promotional value, instead of a competitor.
Funding, secured by the NGO Salviamo l’Orso, is used to purchase and donate native bee swarms, beehives and electric fences to local beekeepers who suffered bear damage, to prevent and reduce future losses caused by bears. The honey produced through these hives will also help compensate for the loss of production. Sixty percent of the honey produced through the donated hives is kept by the beekeeper, while the rest is collected by the NGO and sold locally as bear-friendly honey, to increase awareness on this issue and promote sustainable honey production.
This project is led by a local NGO (Salviamo l’Orso) in collaboration with scientists, funded by grants provided by Patagonia (www.patagonia.com) and Tides (www.tides.com). The project began in 2016 and is ongoing to present date (2019).20 September 2019