Elephants break water tanks, and pipes, and sometimes houses to access water. The main aim is to protect the water storage facilities in rural villages , as the loss of water in a semi-arid desert puts many human lives at risk.
The government provides each village with a borehole, a pump and trough for their livestock. Additionally, the government provides an elephant drinking dam, which is filled from the same borehole and ideally built a few hundred meters outside the village.
This is important, so the elephants can still drink water when they are around and don’t get frustrated by the now inaccessible water storage facilities.
In some cases this dam is very close to the village and elephants pass by closely. This can be dangerous if people walk at night and without a torch. We started the PEACE Education Project to equip people with the knowledge and skills they need to navigate safely around elephants. However, we help to fund alternative elephant dams further away, if necessary.25 June 2020
We found out that the most effective interventions are electric fences, guarding animals, calving control and physical deterrents; the most effectively protected asset is livestock; and the most effective interventions are used to protect assets from cheetahs, Eurasian lynx, wolves and lions.
Effectiveness was measured as the relative risk (RR), which was transformed to the percentage of damage reduction (DR) for easy interpretation. The formula is simple: DR = (1-RR)*100%. RR is the probability of damage when an intervention is applied divided by the probability of damage without an intervention. The formula of the relative risk is also simple: RR = (nt/Nt)/(nc/Nc), where nt is the number of losses (livestock, beehives, etc.) with the intervention, Nt is the total number of the resource with the intervention (livestock, beehives etc.), nc is the number of losses without the intervention and Nc is the total number of resource without the intervention. The letter “t” stands for treatment (with intervention) and “c” for control (without intervention).
Interventions are effective when RR is less than 1, ineffective at RR = 1 and counter-productive (interventions produce more damage) when RR is higher than 1. Interventions are most effective when RR = 0, i.e. no losses are inflicted when the intervention is applied (nt = 0).25 June 2020
The bee fence is a simple barrier along which are arranged at regular intervals (10 m), hives suspended on a cable. Its operation is based on the observation that elephants would not approach within four meters of a hive (King et al., 2009). Despite the thickness of their skin, they are prone to bites on the proboscis or near the eyes.
Many studies have proven the effectiveness of this deterrent method. Indeed, for example, King et al. (2011) argue that hive fences can be a useful tool to deter elephants from entering agricultural land. Analysis of 32 intrusions has shown that elephants have only once crossed the hive fences to access the indoor crops and that the thorn acacia barriers offer no defense against such invasions.
The positive results of this study strongly support the installation of hive fences in the current elephant deterrent toolbox to be tested on a larger scale. Not only can these fences deter pachyderms, but bees provide farmers with honey and other products for sale, which helps diversify incomes.
When combined with other deterrents, the combination of initiatives could create an effective barrier against elephants.12 May 2020
The establishment of buffer cultivation based on chilli or chili fencing made with sisal ropes soaked in motor oil mixed with ground chilli (Capsicum spp.) can scare elephants. The active ingredient in chilli, capsaicin, has the power to irritate the epithelium of mammalian cells by causing a burning sensation. It has been demonstrated by Chang’a et al. (2016) that peppers fences effectively discourage raiding of crops by elephants on the scale of individual farms. During the nine-year study, farmers around Mikumi National Park in Tanzania built these fences around maturing crops, and no incidents of fencing broken by elephants were reported.12 May 2020
Wildlife Friendly™ certification is a global program providing best practice guidelines for farming, ranching, and other enterprises who seek to generate sustainable livelihoods while protecting key species of biodiversity. Our certification programs, also including species-focused initiatives such as Elephant Friendly™ Tea, Jaguar Friendly™ Coffee, and Wildlife Friendly™ IBIS Rice™, are trusted labels that guide consumers towards products that genuinely contribute to species and habitat conservation. Examples of Certified Wildlife Friendly™ and Certified Predator Friendly™ enterprises include producers of dairy, meat, poultry, honey, and crops that use non-lethal management practices and allow for the passage of wildlife and protection of habitat across productive lands. WFEN also certifies tourism enterprises under its core Certified Wildlife Friendly™ Tourism program, such as community-based tour operators and lodges, and others under its Certified Sea Turtle Friendly™ Tourism program, such as resorts that are protecting key sea turtle nesting and foraging habitat while minimizing other tourism related impacts on these species. Wildlife Friendly™ certification provides a science-driven framework for producers seeking to implement practices that support ecosystem integrity, while also requiring that local communities are actively involved and see real benefits from truly Wildlife Friendly™ practices. Consumers are willing to pay a small premium for these products, absorbing the cost often associated with the implementation of best practices for biodiversity. The stories behind certified products and producers build consumer brand loyalty and open access to new markets, while bringing benefits to local communities. Incentivizing best practices across the landscape works to ensure positive conservation outcomes and increased tolerance for wildlife. Across the globe, Wildlife Friendly™ certification and the Wildlife Friendly Enterprise Network are leading the way in promoting agriculture for biodiversity along supply chains and in promoting shared values, understanding, and respect between producers and consumers.30 January 2020
The scheme provides cash relief of 1 million NRs (1 USD equivalent to NRs 115 in 2019) in case of human deaths to victim family. The cash relief also compensates for crop damages, property loss and livestock loss. The scheme includes 14 wildlife species namely Bear, Tiger, Rhino, Elephant, Clouded Leopard, Common Leopard, Snow Leopard, Wild Buffaloes, Wildboar, Gaur Bison, Magar Crocodile, Python, Wild dog and Wolf. A procedure has been established. The process initiates with the application by victim families, verification by a committee representing government and local users. The budget is contributed by the Government of Nepal allocating through annual budget.5 November 2019
In parallel with the dissemination of information to villagers on the most appropriate methods of storing food and beverages, we have produced, in two of our projects in Zambia, an educational booklet on the construction of reinforced grain shelters. These shelters mainly store maize and rice, and also considerably limit elephant incursions into habitable areas.2 October 2019
Human-elephant conflict (HEC) in Kaziranga’s southern part is mainly manifested in agricultural fields which makes it largely seasonal. The crop raiding is at its peak in winter when rice ripens -. Interestingly, a study conducted in the Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam indicates that HEC peaks during July-August for the summer crop and October for the winter crop. This could be attributed to the flooding pattern of KNP around July and August when a large number of elephants might have returned to the adjoining Karbi plateau at the advent of the floods. The seasonal characteristic of crop-raiding in Kaziranga stems from the fact that a large part of the elephant population in Northeast India remains in Assam during rice cultivation months. Elephants often use tea plantations to move around and quite often the tea gardens are contiguous with rice fields. The seasonal movement of elephants to Karbi plateau before the floods could effectively reduce the number of elephants around KNP villages in other seasons and thus could account for a different peak season of HEC in KNP in contrast to Manas Tiger Reserve.
When rice crop is still young, elephants stealthily descend on the rice fields when it is completely dark. As the crop starts bearing grain, elephants get impatient and quite often they can’t wait till it gets completely dark. You can see a herd of elephants leaving KNP and crossing Moridiffulo river around dusk.
Both the Marsican brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) and the Italian honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica) are threatened by the alteration of ecosystems caused by humans. If the bear is critically endangered and on the verge of extinction, then the bees are not safe either. The overall goal of this project is to enhance the biodiversity of the ecosystems and increase food sources for the Marsican brown bear through pollinator insects such as Italian honey bees which would replace non-endemic swarms.
Another important goal of the project is to reduce human-bear conflicts leading to the potential destruction of the small Marsican bear population in Central Italy through poaching (culling is not a legal option). Through promoting cooperation with the beekeepers, this project aims to make beekeepers more aware of the necessity of protecting their farms and see the bear as added promotional value, instead of a competitor.
Funding, secured by the NGO Salviamo l’Orso, is used to purchase and donate native bee swarms, beehives and electric fences to local beekeepers who suffered bear damage, to prevent and reduce future losses caused by bears. The honey produced through these hives will also help compensate for the loss of production. Sixty percent of the honey produced through the donated hives is kept by the beekeeper, while the rest is collected by the NGO and sold locally as bear-friendly honey, to increase awareness on this issue and promote sustainable honey production.
This project is led by a local NGO (Salviamo l’Orso) in collaboration with scientists, funded by grants provided by Patagonia (www.patagonia.com) and Tides (www.tides.com). The project began in 2016 and is ongoing to present date (2019).20 September 2019
Voluntary groups to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts. the group were established to mitigate the conflict and also to inform the government if the conflict happens in their area. if there is no conflict the group acts as government volunteer for spreading news or making conservation is important issue in the community.19 July 2019